IDS VS IPS | concepts and their uses

Understanding IDS and IPS

IDS VS IPS | concepts and their uses

A great intrusion detection system (IDS) is a program that keeps a record of network visitors for distrustful activity and problems and tells when such activity is discovered. While unusualness confirming and recognition generally is the major conduct, loads of invasion recognition systems have the ability to acquire activities if the dangerous activity or anomalous visitors is discovered, incorporating obstructing traffic delivered by suspect IP address.

Even though intrusion detection systems screens networks for destructive activity potentially, they are vulnerable to fake alarms also. Therefore, organizations want to fine-tune their IDS solutions when they 1st install them.

An intrusion prevention system (IPS) also screens network bouts for potentially damaging network visitors. But where an intrusion detection system responds to possibly malicious visitors by looking over the visitors and giving warning notices, potentially, intrusion prevention systems act in response to such visitors by rejecting the possibly destructive packets.

Click here to know how hackers can hack your car.


Several types of intrusion detection systems


Intrusion detection systems come in several preferences and detect suspect actions using different approaches, including the following:

NIDS

A network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is employed intended for a tactical point or points within the network, just in which it can monitor outbound and inbound visitors to and by all the gadgets on the network.

HIDS

Host Intrusion detection systems (HIDS) functions upon all pcs or gadgets in the network with direct gain access to the internet and the organization inside the network. HIDS possess a great benefit over NIDS because they may end up being capable to find anomalous network packets that originate from inside the organization or destructive visitors that a NIDS provides failed to detect. Recognize malicious traffic as when the web host provides been infected with malware and is definitely attempting to spread to various other systems.

Signature-based intrusion detection systems screen all the packets traversing the network and then them against a database of matching or attributes of known destructive threats, much like antivirus software.

Anomaly-based intrusion detection system keeps an eye on network traffic and compares it against a setup baseline, to determine what is considered regular for the network with respect to bandwidth generally, protocols, ports and various other devices. This type of IDS signals potentially administrators to destructive activity.


Historically, intrusion detection systems were simply categorized because passive or active; systems were categorized seeing that active or passive; a passive IDS that observed harmful activity would create a record or alert items but would take no actions.  IDS, sometimes called an invasion detection and prevention system would generate notifications and checklist entries but could end up being configured to take actions also, also, like preventing IP address or turning down access to restricted resources.

Snort, a single of the most used invasion detection systems is an open source widely, widely, freely available and lightweight NIDS that is used to detect emerging dangers. Snort can end up being created on most Unix or Linux operating systems, and a version is available for Windows as well.



Capabilities of intrusion detection systems


Intrusion detection systems keep an eye on network traffic in order to detect when an intrusion is being carried out by unauthorized entities. IDSes perform this by providing some or all of these functions to security specialists:


  • monitoring the operation of routers, firewalls, key management servers and files that are needed by other security regulates aimed at detecting, preventing or recovering from cyber attacks;
  • providing administrators a way to tune, organize and understand relevant operating system audit trails and other logs that  are normally difficult to track or parse; 
  • providing a user-friendly interface so non-expert staff members can assist with managing system security;
  • including an extensive attack signature databases against which information from the operating system can be matched;
  • recognizing and reporting when the IDS detects a malicious activity
  • generating an alarm and informing that security provides been breached, and reacting to intruders by preventing them or preventing the server.

An intrusion detection system may be integrated as a software application running on consumer hardware, or as a network security equipment; cloud-based attack detection systems are available to shield systems and data in cloud deployments also.


Benefits of attack detection systems

Intrusion detection systems give companies a true number of benefits, starting with the ability to identify security incidents. An IDS can end up being used to help analyze the volume and types of attacks, and companies can use this details to the transformation of their security systems or implement more effective handles. An attack detection system can also help companies identify pests or problems with their network device configurations. These metrics can be used to assess future risks then.

Intrusion detection systems can help also the organization attain regulatory compliance. An IDS gives companies better visibility across their systems, making it less complicated to satisfy security regulations.

Intrusion detection systems can improve security response. Since IDS receptors can detect network owners and gadgets, end up being used as well as recognize the operating systems of providers being used. Using an IDS to collect this details can end up being much more efficient than manual censuses of connected systems.


IDS versus IPS

An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is related to an intrusion detection system but differs in that an IPS can be configured to block potential threats.


A great IDS is aimed at examining whole packets -- header and payload -- looking for known events. An IDS warns of dubious activity taking place, but it does not prevent them as does a great IPS.

An intrusion prevention system is typically located between an industry’s firewall and the rest of its network and may have the ability to end any suspected traffic via getting to the rest of the network.


Intrusion prevention systems execute replies to active attacks in real time. Because system administrators structure rules within the IPS that address the needs of the continuing business, the operating system can monitor and evaluate threats, as well as take action in true time to prevent risks. An IPS draw intruders that firewalls miss definitely.
       
    
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What are Honeypots? Understand Honeypots in detail

Meaning of Honeypots

What are Honeypots? Understand Honeypots in detail


Honeypots are traps which are arranged to detect efforts in any unauthorized utilization of info systems, with a look at learning from the episodes to improve pc protection further.

Typically, sustaining network protection offers an excellent involved acting, using network-based defense techniques like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and encryption. But the current scenario demands more proactive methods to identify even, details systems. In such a situation, the utilization of honeypots is unquestionably an intense and appealing strategy to battle off network protection threats.

What are Honeypots

.



What is a Honeypot

Taking into consideration the classical subject of computer security, a computer needs to end up being protected, but in the domain of Honeypots, the security gaps are founded to open up on purpose. Honeypots can end up being described as a snatch which is generally founded to detect attempts at any unauthorized utilize of info systems. Specialists The primary purpose of a Honeypot could possibly be to determine and find out from the problems and further use the info to improve protection. Honeypots possess extended been utilized to keep an eye on assailants’ activity and defend against arriving dangers. There are two types of honeypots:

Strategies It is unquestionably used as a watch post to find how an attacker is functioning when reducing a system.

Production Honeypot - These are used for detection and to protect companies primarily. The main purpose of a production honeypot is to help mitigate risk in a firm unquestionably.

Why arranged up Honeypots

The worth of a honeypot is weighed by the given information that can be obtained from it. Monitoring the data that leaves and enters a honeypot allow us to finally, the user gather details that are not usually available certainly. Generally, there are two popular reasons for placing up a Honeypot:


Gain Understanding

Learn how hackers attempt and probe to gain access to your systems. The primary idea is that since a record of the culprit’s activities is kept undoubtedly, one can gain understanding into the strike techniques to better shield their real production systems.


Gather Data


Collect forensic details that are needed to aid in the apprehension or prosecution of hackers definitely. This is definitely the kind of information which is unquestionably often needed to provide rules enforcement officials with the details needed to prosecute.



How Honeypots secure Pc Systems


A Honeypot is a pc connected to a network. These can become used to examine the vulnerabilities of the operating system or the network. Depending on the kind of product, one can research security options in general or in particular. These can end up being used to observe activities of a particular which obtained access to the Honeypot.

Honeypots are based on a right server generally, right operating system, along with data that looks require right. One of the important differences could be the location of the machine in partnership with the actual website computers. The many vital activities of a honeypot are to capture the data certainly, the ability to record, aware, and capture everything the intruder is carrying out. The gathered details can confirm to end up being quite essential against the attacker.

High-Interaction vs. Low-Interaction Honeypots


High-interaction honeypots can entirely end up being compromised, permitting an enemy to gain full access to the system and use it to start further network attacks. With the help such honeypots, users can learn more about targeted attacks against their systems or also about insider attacks.

As opposed, the low-interaction honeypots place on only services which may not be exploited to get complete access to the honeypot. These are typically much more limited but are useful for gathering details at a higher level.

Features of using Honeypots


  • Collect Normal Data
  • While Honeypots acquire a small volume of data but almost just about all of this data is a right strike or unauthorized activity.
  • Reduced False Positive
  • With most detection technologies (IDS, IPS) a large fraction of alerts are false safety measures, while with Honeypots this doesn’t hold true.
  • Cost Effective
  • Honeypot interacts with malicious activity and does not require high-performance resource just.


  • Encryption

With a honeypot, it doesn’t matter if an attacker is using encryption; end up being captured.


  • Simple


Honeypots are very essential to understand, maintain and deploy.


A Honeypot is a thought and not a tool which can end up being simply deployed. One requires to know well in advance what they purpose to learn, and the honeypot can end up being customized structured on their specific needs then. There could be some useful details on sans possibly.org if you need to browse more on the subject
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Python for Hacking | Part 5 | concept of loops | while loops and for loops

Python for Hacking | Part 5 | concept of loops | while loops and for loops

Python for Hacking | Part 5 | concept of loops | while loops and for loops

5.1 Introduction


In this post, we are going to discuss the concept of looping in Python. We will discuss in detail the concept of while and for loops. We will learn what are while loops and for loops and how to use them.

So, let's dive deep in.

5.2 The while loop

There are many things which a computer can do better than a human. One of such things is to repeat the same task a lot of times and without doing any error. It's obvious that if a person had to do a task involving a huge number of repetition, his chances of doing a mistake is very high. So, we will assign this task to a computer or computer-like machine for better accuracy and speed.

This task of repeating things is called iteration. In Python, we have the concept of loops which we can use in order to complete a repetitive task in a much faster and accurate way. 



In python, we can achieve this task by using a while or a for loop. Now, let's discuss the while loop in detail. In a while loop, if the condition is false, the execution of the program will skip the while statements and the statements after it will be executed. If the condition remains true, all the statements under the while loop will be executed and it will execute the statements after it.

Look the example below of the execution of the while loop in a function:

def printing(n):
  while n >  0:
    print(n)
    n = n-1 

printing(9) 

In the above example, we have made a function which will print a number and all its predecessors until it is greater than '0'. When n will be equal to or less than 0, the program will stop the execution.

See the complete execution of the above program in the below image:




While statement comes very handy when we have to check a condition a huge number of times and the execution depends on its output.

5.3 The for loop

A for loop is used to create a loop based on a sequence. This sequence can be a list, a tuple, a dictionary, a set, a range, or a string (we will discuss a tuple, a list, a dictionary and other things in detail in coming posts).

If you have studied other programming languages and know about the for loop, you probably had known that in other languages, when you use the for loop, you have to specify an indexing variable, but in the Python, it is not required.


The syntax of a 'For loop'

Now, let's see how to use a for loop in Python:

We will see a very basic example of a for loop to make things clear to understand, 

number = ["one","two","three","four"]
for x in fruits:
   print(x)

We will get the following output on our screen when we will run this program:

one
two
three
four

Now, let's try to understand what we had done in this program. Firstly, we had made a list of values of type string which contains four strings.

Then, we had used the for loop to print the values of the list. 

Note: look carefully the syntax of the for loop, we have used two keywords: for and in. These are the default keywords in Python.

This statement will basically select all the values of the list: number and will print on the screen.

For loop in a string 

Now let's see how a for loop will be used in a string. 

x = 'strong'
print(x[2])

Output:

r

In the above program, we will get the output as 'r' because each character in a string will act as a value of a list, just as in the case of our previous example and the for loop statement will look for the desired value and will print it on the screen.

Now, let's try to understand what is the meaning of the statement x[2]?

Basically, in Python, the indexing of a number starts from a whole number that is 0. Means instead f 1, our counting will start from 0. 

In the word 'strong', 

s tends to 0, t tends to 1, r tends to 2, o tends to 3, n tends to 4 and g tends to 4.

So, when x[2] is executed the list x containing the word strong looks for the digit on the place 2 which is r, will be printed on the screen.

For loop usage with the range() function

We can also use the for loop with the range function. Range function returns a sequence of values and it terminates at a specified value.
Look at the below example,

for x in range(5):
  print(x)

Output:

0
1
2
3
4

In the above example, what has happened is that the range function has taken the value of x from the range(5) or from 0-5.

Remember, 5 has been excluded because counting has been started from 0.

You can also use else statements inside a for loop.

Similarly, we can nest multiple for loop statements inside each other and get our desired result. Nesting for loops means running multiple for statements inside a single statement. Remember, in this case, the outermost loop will be executed first.



Conclusion

So, basically in today's post, we have learned the concept of looping in Python in detail. We had studied about the for loops, while loops and their usage in real programs. 

Hope this tutorial is cleared to you. If you have any doubts, please ask them in the comment box below. 

Have a nice day!




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Python for Hacking | Part 4 | concept of conditional statements and recursion

Python for Hacking | Part 4 | concept of conditional statements and recursion

Python for Hacking | Part 4 | concept of conditional statements and recursion

In this post, we are going to discuss the concept of Conditional statements and Recursion in Python. We will be going to discuss both the topics in detail and will know exactly how and where to use them properly.


Conditional statements are basically used to check whether a condition is true or not. If a statement is true, the piece of code behind the true part is executed and if false, the part of the program after the false statement is executed.

Conditional statements are very useful when we have a set of different conditions and we have to check that which of those statements are true and they change the behavior of the program accordingly.

The simplest form is the if statement:

x =2
if x > 1:
  print('x is greater than 1')

In the above example, we are checking the condition that whether the value of x is greater than 1 or not. If the value of x is greater than 1, we will get 'x is greater than 1' on our screen. If it's not greater than 1, the program will end without doing anything. Since in the above example, we have the value of x as 2 which is greater than 1 so, we will get the print statement on our screen.

Python for Hacking | Part 4 | concept of conditional statements and recursion

NOTE: In the above example, see the logical expression (x>1). Python uses the following logical conditions which are the same as in the Mathematics:
  • equal to: a == b 
  • not equal to: a!=b
  • less than: a < b
  • less than or equal to: a <= b
  • greater than: a > b
  • greater than or equal to: a>=b

Now, let's discuss each and every logical condition in detail:

1. equal to: 'a == b'

This operator '==' is used to check whether one entity is equal to another entity or not. Don't get confused with the '=' operator which is generally used in mathematics to check the equality condition.
In Python or many another programming languages, the equality condition is checked by the double equal sign '=='. Single equal sign '=' in Python is used to assign a value to an entity (for eg. a variable).
If you used 'a = b' to check the equality condition, the Python interpreter will give you an error.

2. not equal to: 'a != b'

This operator '!=' is used to check whether an entity is not equal to another entity. If an entity is not equal to another entity, then the part of the code followed by the 'true' condition will be followed. It is the opposite of the 'equal to' operator.

3. less than: 'a < b'

This operator '<' is used to check whether an entity is smaller than another entity. If the entity is smaller then, the part of the code which is meant to be run for the true case will be executed.

4. less than or equal to: 'a <= b'

This operator '<=' is used to check whether an operator is less than or equal to another operator or not. The true part of the code, in this case, will be executed when the first variable is either equal to or less than the second operator. Remember that there is no such thing as equal to or less than '=<'. If you will use it, you will get an error.

5. greater than: 'a > b'

This operator '>' is used to check whether an entity is greater than another entity or not. If the entity is greater then, the part of the code which is meant to be run for the true case will be executed.

6. greater than or equal to: 'a >= b'

This operator '>=' is used to check whether an operator is greater than or equal to another operator or not. The true part of the code, in this case, will be executed when the first variable is either equal to or greater than the second operator. Remember that there is no such thing as equal to or greater than '=>'. If you will use it, you will get an error.



elif, else

* else

'else' is used when we have more than one possibilities and we have to determine which part of the code will be going to execute depending on the given condition to be tested.

for example,

x = 5
if x>1:
  print('x is greater than 1')
else:
  print('x is either equal or lesser than 1')

In the above example, we have initialized x to 5. Then we have to check whether x is greater than 1 or not. There are two possibilities of this event that either x will be less than 1 or x will be greater than 1, so we have used the keyword 'else' along with 'if' statement to check this condition. 

* Elif 

'elif' is used when we have more than two possibilities for a given condition and we need more than two branches.

For example, 

x=2
y=4
if x < y:
  print('x is less than y')
elif x >y:
  print('x is greater than y')
else:
  print('x and y are equal')

In the above program, we have initialized x to 2 and y to 4. Here, we have to check three conditions. Remember, in order to check two conditions we can easily do it by using the 'else' keyword but in order to check more than three conditions, we will need a new keyword called 'elif'. 'elif' is basically an abbreviation for else-if.

In the above example, we have to check whether x is greater or smaller or equal to y. That's why we have used the keyword 'elif'. Look carefully, the use of 'elif' in the above example. We can use 'elif' any number of times in the program depending on the number of possibilities of the condition to be tested. But, remember that the condition must be started with an 'if' keyword and must end with an 'else' keyword. You can use any number of 'elif' keyword between them. The statements in the example look like a chain of if-else-if statements, that's why they are also known as chained conditionals


Nested conditionals

One conditional statement can be nested within the other. It means we can easily start one conditional statement inside a conditional. This is called nesting or nesting conditional statements. 

For example,

x = 1
y = 2
if x == y:
  print('X is equal to Y')
else:
  if x > y:
    print('X is greater than Y')
  else:
    prinr('X is less than Y')

In the above example, we have nested one 'if-else' conditional statement inside an 'if' conditional statement. 


Recursion 

We have already discussed and learned about the Functions and we talked about declaring, defining and calling them in a program. We also know that a function can call another function in a program.

But, do you know that a Function can call itself any number of time in the program. This property of a Function to call itself in a program is called Recursion. 

For example, 

def printN(n):
  if n == 0:
    print('Terminate')
  else:
    print(n)
    printN(n-1)

printN(2)




In the above example, we have done recursion by calling the function printN() within the function itself (see in the second last line).

Conclusion 

In this post, we have learned about conditional statements, how to use them, different types of conditional statements and their usage. We have also learned about Recursion and it's practical usage with the help of an example. 

If you have any doubt, you can ask in the comment section.

Please share this article with your friends.

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Python for Hacking | Part 3 | concept of Functions

Python for Hacking | Part 3 | concept of Functions

In this post of the series of Python for Hacking, we are now going to discuss the concept of Functions and how to declare them, call them and use them in a program with the help of an example.

So, let's get started...



3.1 What is a Function?

A Function in Python is simply a piece of code which runs only when that Function is called. A function helps in reducing the effort to type the same piece of code over and over again. This comes very handily when a program contains several hundred or thousands of lines of code and there is a need to type the same piece of code again and again. In that case, we will just define a function containing a piece of code and call that Function whenever, wherever (I love that song Lol) needed.

3.2 How to create and call a Function in Python?

3.2.1 Creating a Function in Python

In Python, a Function is declared using the def keyword followed by the name of the function. For example, if we want to create a very simple Function which when called will print something on the screen, it will be created as follows:

def some_function():
  print('hello python!')
  print('I love Python!')


[If you do not know how to create a file in Python, visit this link]

Note the colon ( : ) after the name of the function. It is compulsory to put a colon after the name of the function. These brackets ( ) after the name of the function will contain arguments which will be passed to the Function when it will be called. We will discuss arguments in the coming section.

Notice the spacing before the print('hello Python!') and print('I love Python!') commands above. It is necessary to put some spacing before each and every line inside a function. This spacing inside the function is necessary to be done because of this spacing before each and every line of the code, it will tell the Python interpreter that these lines of code are not the part of the actual program, rather it's the part of the function. If you'll not do the spacing before each and every line inside the Function, Python interpreter will return an error. This spacing before each line of the code inside the function is called indentation.



3.2.2 Calling a Python function

To call a function, just type the name of the function outside the function declaration and run the program. 

def some_function():
  print('hello python!')
  print('I love Python!')
  
some_function()

You'll get the following output:

3.3 What are arguments/parameters?

Argument or a parameter is the information/value which is passed to the function and is then used inside the function wherever required. 

Arguments are written inside the parenthesis in the function call. You can pass as many arguments as you want to a function. Just separate the arguments by a comma (,).

For example, if you want to pass first_name and last_name as the arguments to a function printName to print a name on the screen, then the program will be as follows:

def printName(first_name,last_name):
  print(first_name + last_name)

printName('Dishant',' Sharma')



In the above example, we are passing arguments as 'Dishant' and 'Sharma' of data type string to the function printName. Both the arguments inside the parenthesis in the function call statement are in ' ' because they are of the data type string and if you do not put them inside the ' ', Python interpreter will treat them as integer and it will give you an error because Dishant and Sharma are strings and you're trying to add them as integers.

When we will run this program, we will get the following output on our screen as shown in the image:



3.4 Default argument value

What if we forget to pass the argument/s while calling a function and the result of the function depends on it?

Well, we also have a solution for that problem in Python. If we will forget to pass arguments to a function, Python interpreter will take default argument values and will pass it to the function. That default value which interpreter passes to the function is called the Default Argument Value.

For example, 
def country(country_name= 'United States'):
   print('I live in '+country_name)

country() 


When we will run this program, we will get the following output as shown in the image below:


So basically in the above program, we didn't pass the argument to the function instead, the Python interpreter takes the default value of the argument which we defined to the argument while defining the function.

3.5 Returning a value

To return a value in Python, we basically use a keyword called return. For example, 
def sum(x):
   return x+2

sum(2)  


When we will run this program, we will get the following output on the screen:




In the above example, the function returns a value equal to 4.

Hope, you have understood this tutorial. If you had any doubt, please do ask in the comment section. Please share this article with your friends also.


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Python for Hacking | Part 2 | concept of data types, variables, constants, and keywords

Python for Hacking | Part 2 | concept of data types, variables, constants, and keywords

What is a data type?

Data-type of a value means the type of value being stored in the memory. For example, 4 is a value of the data-type int (integer), 4.0 is a value of the data-type float (decimal), 'Hello World' is a value of the data-type character (string).

What is a Variable?

A variable is an entity in Python which can change its value. A value assigned to a variable can be changed later during the execution of the program. For example, a = 15 is a variable which contains the value 15 of the data-type integer. Similarly, subject = 'Computer Science' is a variable which contains a string of characters.

How to declare a Variable in Python?

To declare a variable and store a value in it, just type the name of the variable and assign a value to it by following a '=' sign after the variable name. As you can see in the below image, we have declared three variables of the type integer, float, and string. You don't have to write the data-type of the variable along with the name of the variable while declaring a variable in Python, as in the case of programming languages like C/C++ et cetera. Python interpreter is smart enough to know the exact data-type of the variable just by its value.

NOTE: While declaring a variable of data type int and float, the value assigned to them after the '=' sign should not be in '', because a value written inside ' ', Python interpreter will treat it as a String. Similarly, to declare a variable containing a pair of string, the value assigned to the variable must be inside ' ' or " ". 

REMEMBER: Python is a case-sensitive language means, 'Python' and 'python' have different meanings in Python. Python interpreter treats them as two different entities.

What is a Constant?

A constant in Python is an entity which cannot change its value. A constant once declared, cannot change its value during the entire duration of the program.


How to declare a Constant in Python?

You cannot use a Constant in Python just like a Variable instead, you have to first declare a Constant value inside a module and then, you have to import that module so as to use that Constant value in your program. 

To declare a constant value, first of all, make a Python module. A module is nothing but a file consisting of Python code.

To declare a module, open your Python IDLE terminal, and then click on 'File' tab in the tab menu. And then, click on 'New File' option in the drop-down menu. Another option to create a new file in Python is to simultaneously press 'Ctrl+N' key. A new window will open on your screen and you can now type your Python code inside that file (see in the image below).



Write the following code inside the new window as in the image:


Then save this file by clicking on 'Save As' inside the File menu. You can give any name to this file. For the sake of this tutorial, I am giving the name as 'constant' to this file.

Create a new file by clicking on New File and import the constant.py file you just created by typing the following code inside this file as shown in the below image:


Now, save this file with the name 'Main.py'. Don't change the default installation path of the program or if you want to change the default installation path, make sure that both the 'constant.py'
and 'Main.py' should be in the same folder otherwise, Python interpreter will not be able to import Constant module and you'll get an error.

Don't panic if you're not able to understand the code now, as I will discuss all the code written in this file in detail later. For the time being, focus only on the result of the program.

Now, run this file by pressing the F5 key or by clicking on the 'run module' option inside the RUN tab menu. You will get the following OUTPUT on your screen:


Remember one thing, write the Constants inside the module file in CAPITAL letters.



How to assign a name to a Variable and Constants in Python?

Although you can assign any name to a Variable in Python, generally the following convention is followed while assigning a name to a Variable in Python:
  • The first letter of the name must be an alphabetical letter. You cannot start the Variable in Python with a number. For example, a Variable with the name 4eet is not valid in Python whereas, a Variable with the name e4et is a valid one. 
  • You must use Camel-case notation to write a name of the variable containing more than two words. For example, myName, theVariable et cetera. The first letter of the first word is generally written in lower case whereas, the first letter of the second word must begin with an Uppercase.
  • You can only use alpha-numeric characters ((a-z) or (A-Z) or (0-9)) while naming a  Variable in Python. 
  • You cannot use special symbols like #,$,!,@,& et cetera while naming a Variable in Python.
  • You can start the name of the variable with a '_'. For example, '_constant' is a  valid name in Python.
  • You can separate the two words in the variable name with a '_'. For example, 'my_variable' is a valid name in Python.

What are keywords?

Keywords in Python are reserved words which you cannot use as ordinary variables or constants. They are reserved words having predefined meaning and usage. For example, print is a keyword in Python which is used to print a value on the screen and cannot be used to store a value. 
For example, if you will try to store 7 in print or print = 7, you will get an error from the Python interpreter.

Refer to this link, to see the complete list of keywords in Python.


https://www.ethicalhackingonline.ooo/2018/09/python-for-hacking-part-3-what-are-functions.html

         
                                                                                                                                                
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Python for Hacking | Part 1 | what is python | installing python in the system | first program in Python

Python for Hacking | Part 1 | what is python | installing python in the system | first program in python




Python is a high-level programming language. A high-level programming language is the one which can be easily understood by human or in other words, a high-level programming language is much like the English language. A low-level programming language is the one which is used by computing systems (like a computer or laptop) to follow an instruction given by the user of that system. For example, sending a mail, saving a document, performing a calculation etc. Firstly, a program is written into a high-level programming language and then, it is converted into low-language or simply machine-understandable form by the means of a piece of a software called an interpreter or a compiler. Python is an interpreted language, so an interpreter is used to convert the program from high-language form to low-language form in case of Python. A compiler converts the entire code into a machine-understandable form in one go, whereas, an interpreter converts the code into a machine-understandable form by converting through line-by-line.

In this Python for Hacking series, we will first learn the basics of Python and then we will move forward to learn to make hacking scripts written in Python.

So let's dive deep in.....

Installing Python


  • To install Python in your system, visit this link
  • Select the correct version of Python compatible with your operating system and click on download button.
  • Install the downloaded file in your system and follow all the on-screen instructions.
  • Now, open the official Python IDE.

Installing Python in Android

Don't have a PC, but want to learn Python?

Don't worry we have a solution for you. First, install Termux in your android phone from this link. Then follow this link

Successfully installed Python? Now, let's get started...

Creating your first program in Python














  • Open the python terminal and then type, print("Hello World!").
  • You will get the following output on your screen: 
                         Hello World! (see in the image above)

If you are using Termux, follow the same instructions and you'll get the same output.

                                                                            
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What is Cryptography? | Concept of Cryptanalysis | Career opportunities in Cryptology

What is Cryptography? | Concept of Cryptanalysis | Career opportunities in Cryptology


Cryptography is related with the way toward changing over customary plain content into muddled content and the other way around. It is a technique for putting away and transmitting information in a specific frame with the goal that those for whom it is proposed can read and process it. Cryptography shields information from burglary or modification as well as be utilized for client validation. 


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What is Machine Learning? Careers in Machine Learning

What is Machine Learning? Careers in Machine Learning


Machine learning is the examination of invigorating PCs to act without being explicitly changed. In the earlier decade, machine learning has given us self-driving vehicles, sensible talk verification, excellent web scan for, and a hugely upgraded vitality about the human genome. Machine learning is so unpreventable today that you all the more than likely use it commonly reliably without knowing it. Distinctive specialists what's more think it is the best way to deal with oversee make progress towards human-level AI.



Machine learning (ML) is a class of figuring that draws in programming applications to end up more right in envisioning results without being unequivocally changed. The focal beginning of machine learning is to fabricate estimations that can get input data and use true blue examination to envision a yield while reestablishing yields as new data winds up open.

The systems pulled in with machine learning resemble that of data mining and sensible laying out. Both require researching data to check for plans and changing framework hones moreover. Distinctive people consider machine learning from shopping on the web and being served plugs related to their purchase. This occurs in light of the manner in which that proposal engines use machine learning to re-attempt online advancement transport continually. Past changed appearing, other regular machine learning use cases consolidate distortion exposure, spam keeping, create a security danger obvious proof, perceiving upkeep and building news channels.

How machine learning limits


Machine learning estimations are every so often arranged as encouraged or unsupervised. Regulated estimations require a data master or data examiner with machine learning aptitudes to give the two data and required yield, regardless of planning responsibility about the exactness of theories in the midst of computation getting ready. Data specialists comprehend which factors, or features, the model should disengage and use to make figures. While getting ready is done, the figuring will apply what was found to new data.



Unsupervised computations oughtn't to be set up with required outcome data. Or on the other hand, maybe, they use an iterative approach called imperative learning to overview data and get in contact at conclusions. Unsupervised learning estimations - similarly called neural frameworks - are used for more shocking overseeing errands than facilitated learning structures, including picture request, banter with substance and standard vernacular age. These neural frameworks work by methods for looking through countless planning data and commonly seeing a routinely unpretentious relationship between's various fragments. Once sorted out, the count can use its bank of relationship to loosen up new data. These counts have to start late ended up being possible in the period of tremendous data, as they require enormous degrees of organizing data.

Events of machine learning


Machine learning is being used in a wide blend of employment today. A supervisor among the most point of fact comprehended depictions is Facebook's News source. The News source uses machine learning to re-attempt each part's channel. If a fragment a great bit of the time stops needing to analyze or like a particular buddy's posts, the News source will start to show a more obvious extent of that buddy's activity earlier in the channel. Off camera, the thing is fundamentally using quantifiable examination and shrewd examination to see plans in the customer's data and use those cases to populate the News channel. Should the part never again stop to take a gander at, as or comment on the sidekick's posts, that new data will be joined into the informational report and the News divert will change in like way?

Machine learning is correspondingly entering a game plan of colossal business applications. Customer relationship affiliation (CRM) structures use learning models to disengage email and provoke bargains accomplices to respond to the most pivotal messages first. Likewise influenced structures to can even recommend possibly helpful responses. Business data (BI) and examination shippers use machine learning in their thing to help customers thusly see possibly fundamental server ranches. Human resource (HR) structures use learning models to see characteristics of beneficial specialists and rely on this data to find the best believability for open positions.



Machine learning in like manner expects a crucial part in self-driving cars. Basic learning neural frameworks are used to see differs and pick glorify hones for safely controlling a vehicle not far-cleared.

Virtual accomplice progress is what's more controlled through machine learning. Watchful partners bond a few immense learning models to unravel trademark talk, get material setting - like a customer's valuable timetable or beginning at now delineated tendencies - and make a move, for example, booking a flight or pulling up driving headings.

Sorts of machine learning counts


Essentially as there are decently unfathomable occupations of machine learning, there is no deficiency of machine learning computations. They keep running from the truly simple to the basically astounding. Here are two or three of the most dependable used models:

This class of machine learning estimation wires seeing an association - overall between two segments - and using that relationship to make suppositions as for future server ranches.

  • Decision trees. These models use affirmations about particular exercises and see a perfect system to land at a pined for the result.

  • K-maps. These model social affairs a destined number of server ranches into a specific number of groupings in the setting of like properties.

  • Neural networks. These basic learning models utilize a critical extent of getting ready data to see the connection between's various elements to see how to process pushing toward data later on.

  • Bolster analytics. This zone of critical learning wires models underscoring over various undertakings to complete a framework. Steps that pass on romanticize results are changed and steps that make undesired outcomes are repulsed to the point that the incorporate takes the perfect system.

The fate of machine learning


While machine learning figurings have been around for a basic long time, they've accomplished new reputation as man-made mental twisted (AI) has made in obviousness. Enormous learning models particularly control the present most made AI applications.

Machine learning stages are among gigantic business progress' most attracted spaces, with most crucial vendors, including Amazon, Google, Microsoft, IBM and others, dashing to sign customers up for compose benefits that cover the degree of machine learning works out, including data gathering, data openness, show building, masterminding an application association. As machine learning continues creating in importance to business tries and AI ends up being unendingly sensible in gigantic business settings, the machine learning stage wars will fundamentally rouse.



Continued with examination concerning immense learning and AI is continually in light of developing all the more clearing applications. The present AI models require wide masterminding reviewing an authoritative focus to make an expecting that is exceedingly moved to perform one errand. Before long, a couple of researchers are taking a gander at ways to deal with oversee make models more adaptable and orchestrated to apply setting got from one errand to future, unmistakable assignments.

Calling Way


Machine Learning Specialists are astoundingly required in the domain of Information Development Industry over the world especially in the USA. Machine Learning decreases an expansive degree of human undertakings easily by lessening the anguish and oversights. Most by far of the affiliations are starting computerization and those other than require the Machine learning progression to be executed over their forte units to make their execution and capacity while diminishing the costs.

The movement course at initially starts as a Machine Learning Modeler, Will's character making applications that play out some typical errands done by people and this will be used for reiterated things which will perform without any messes up and passes on sensible results.

Machine Learning Authority part will be trailed by the Organizer level position in. The running with the level of an occupation course in Planner level will be of some part to outline and develop the models for the applications to be passed on.

Probably, even a thing plan with a few vital loads of experience can switch their occupations in Machine Learning zone. A Python programmer or a data scientist can likewise successfully switch occupations in Machine Learning.

Individuals even with no relationship in programming outlining can in like way start their occupations in Machine Learning if they affect them to string data in programming building, science, experiences and so forth.

Occupation Positions or Application Zones


In the zone of Machine Learning, there are particular parts available in the information headway industry to look for after the calling are, for instance, Machine Learning Planner, Senior Machine Learning Creator, Lead Machine Learning Engineer, Machine Learning Draftsman Front Office and Back office, Focal Fashioner – Machine LearningMachine Learning Programming Designer, Data Scientist, Senior Data Analyst, Data Specialist IT, Senior Data Scientist IT et cetera. 
The machine learning specialist has some solid center information on software engineering ideas a strong arithmetic foundation with insights too. pay the normal pay of the machine learning architect in the assembled states is $100 956 every year according to the best American site that gives pay and pays data about various organizations payscale.com. also, this position has hopefuls without any than 10 long periods of involvement in the business. the national normal pay for a machine learning as said in another best compensation data site glassdoor.com is $120 931 in the assembled states. the most well-known site indeed.com additionally specifies that a normal compensation for vocations in machine learning zone is $135 246 every year. the normal middle pay rates for the diverse SharePoint profession ways are as underneath: information researcher us$69000 us$133000 senior information researcher us$98000 us$160000 machine learning architect us$77000 us$155000 information researcher in it us$69000 us$129000 senior information researcher it us$92000 us$164000 a machine learning specialist wins a middle compensation of around USD 112 622 in the assembled states. Vocation viewpoint there are various and distinctive profession ways in the zone of machine learning and furthermore, the normal compensations are additionally enormous figures in the machine learning vocation way. this recommends the future for one who needs to go into the territory of machine learning will be splendid and energizing. there will be enormous quantities of necessities for the people with abilities set in the region of machine learning in the coming future. there are likewise different profession ways to move subsequent to going into the machine learning specialist region like man-made brainpower information science and information investigation and so on. it proficient with some great relational abilities and solid specialized range of abilities with a strong science or insights foundation can achieve some best statures in their professions like senior draftsmen or senior topic specialists in the vocation of machine learning or man-made brainpower. the prerequisites for the active positions in the region of machine learning architect in the unified states are expanding day by day in huge numbers. as a result of the everyday schedule exercises or assignments in the huge client based organizations, the activity dealing with obligations should be exceptionally exact and blunder free for effective business deliverers to the clientsmachine learning programming applications or items are an awesome need to the organizations to keep up the client's substance information secure machine learning designer is the one among the best mechanical progressions accessible in the market to give some high unpredictability business arrangements.
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